Obligatory (Faraiz) Acts of the Salah 1

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The obligatory (Faraiz) acts of the Salah

The Salah is a complete action comprising Farz, Wajib, Sunnah and Mustahabs prescribed in the Hadis and Sunnah. The Farz are those acts, which are necessary in every conditions. If one of them is missed, the Salah becomes invalid. For instance, if a person misses the Sujood, his Salah will be invalid. The person has to repeat the Salah. The Wajib acts are those, if one of them are missed, the Salah is valid with Sujood of Sahwo. If any Sunnah is missed, the Salah is valid.  The conditions of the Salah is mentioned above. There are some more relative conditions will be mentioned bellow. These are in Arabic as:

شرائط الصلاة، وأركانها (فرائض الصلاة)، وواجباتها، وسننها، ومستحباتها.

Arkan is Arabic word, the singular is Rukn.

Literary: Rukn means an important part of something.

In terminology: It is an integral part of something, from which that thing comes into existence. Therefore, Rukn is an eternal part of the Salah. Salah can not exist without completing them.[1]

In the Salah: the Rukn is an important, eternal part by which the Salah is completed or formed. If one of them is missed, the Sala is missed.[2]

It is narrated in Hadith that Prophet (PBUH) entered the Masjid, then a person entered to the Masjid and offered the Salah. He then came to Prophet (PBUH) and said Salam. Prophet (PBUH) said go and offer the Salah again. You did not offered it. He did three times and ten taught him the Sala.

حَدَّثَنِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْمُثَنَّى، حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي سَعِيدُ بْنُ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم دَخَلَ الْمَسْجِدَ فَدَخَلَ رَجُلٌ فَصَلَّى ثُمَّ جَاءَ فَسَلَّمَ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَرَدَّ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم السَّلاَمَ قَالَ ‏”‏ ارْجِعْ فَصَلِّ فَإِنَّكَ لَمْ تُصَلِّ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ فَرَجَعَ الرَّجُلُ فَصَلَّى كَمَا كَانَ صَلَّى ثُمَّ جَاءَ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَسَلَّمَ عَلَيْهِ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ وَعَلَيْكَ السَّلاَمُ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ ثُمَّ قَالَ ‏”‏ ارْجِعْ فَصَلِّ فَإِنَّكَ لَمْ تُصَلِّ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ حَتَّى فَعَلَ ذَلِكَ ثَلاَثَ مَرَّاتٍ فَقَالَ الرَّجُلُ وَالَّذِي بَعَثَكَ بِالْحَقِّ مَا أُحْسِنُ غَيْرَ هَذَا عَلِّمْنِي ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏”‏ إِذَا قُمْتَ إِلَى الصَّلاَةِ فَكَبِّرْ ثُمَّ اقْرَأْ مَا تَيَسَّرَ مَعَكَ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ ثُمَّ ارْكَعْ حَتَّى تَطْمَئِنَّ رَاكِعًا ثُمَّ ارْفَعْ حَتَّى تَعْتَدِلَ قَائِمًا ثُمَّ اسْجُدْ حَتَّى تَطْمَئِنَّ سَاجِدًا ثُمَّ ارْفَعْ حَتَّى تَطْمَئِنَّ جَالِسًا ثُمَّ افْعَلْ ذَلِكَ فِي صَلاَتِكَ كُلِّهَا”‏.‏

Abu Huraira reported:

The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) entered the mosque and a person also entered therein and offered prayer, and then came and paid salutation to the Messenger of Allah (PBUH). The Mes- senger of Allah (PBUH) returned his salutation and said, Go back and pray, for you have not offered the prayer. He again prayed as he had prayed before, and came to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon. him) and saluted him. The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) returned the salutation and said, Go back and say prayer, for you have not offered the prayer. This (act of repeating the prayer) was done three times. Upon this the person said, By Him Who hast sent you with Truth, whatever better I can do than this, please teach me. He (the Holy Prophet) said, When you get up to pray, recite takbir, and then recite whatever you conveniently can from the Qur’an, then bow down and remain quietly in that position, then raise your- self and stand erect; then prostrate yourself and remain quietly in that attitude; then raise yourself and sit quietly; and do that throughout all your prayers.[3]

Arkan (essential things) of the Salah

Arkan of the Salah are Six. These are also called Fraiz of the Salah.

  • (Al-Tahreem): To say Allahu Akber at the beginning of the Salah.
  • (Al-Qiyam): To stand straight in the Salah.
  • (Al-Qirat): To recite the Holy Quran in the Salah at least one long Aayah or three small Ayaah.
  • (Al-Ruku): To bow down at knees.
  • (Al-Sujood): To do prostrations. Both Sujood are Farz.
  • (Last Tashahhud): To sit in the last sitting such pause that a person can read Tashahhud.[4]

Takbeer-e-Tahrima

Literary meaning:

Takbeer: it means to say Allaho Akbar “Allah is the greatest”.

Tahrima: it means the actions which prohibits all other actions.

In Shariat: Takbeer-e-Tahrima means the first Takbeer at the time of starting Salah which prohibits all others actions in Salah which were permissible out of the Salah before.

  • Takbeer-e-Tahrima is first Rukn of Salah. The Salah cannot start without it.

The way of Takbeer-e-Tahreema

Takbeer-e-Tahrima is a necessary part of the Salah and it must be done along with the intention of that Salah which we are going to start. Keep in mind that we should do intention prior to Takbeer-e-Tahrima and we would be considered in the Salah, only when we start it with Takbeer-e-Tahrima. It doesn’t matter whether we do intention verbally or in heart (Haqiqatan or Hukman).

Method of Takbeer-e-Tahrima:

  • When a person intends to offer Salah he must take care of all necessary acts which are required for Salah.
  • Then stand straight facing towards Qibla.
  • Do intention of whatever Salah you are going to offer like Farz Salah, Wajib Salah and Sunnah Salah.
  • Then raise both the hands at least up to shoulder or up to loop of the ears.
  • While raising hands keep the fingers straight and open naturally and facing towards Qibla.
  • Now with all dignity and respect say loudly “Allaho Akbar”.
  • And put the hands on or under belly button or under the chest.
  • Now you are in Salah.[5]

Rules of Takbeer-e-Tahreema

  • Takbeer-e-Tahrima is one of the Rukn of the Salah.
  • It means to say “Allaho Akbar” at the beginning of the Salah.
  • It is a common consensus among scholars that Salah will not be started without Takbeer-e-Tahrima.
  • As Takbeer-e-Tahrima is a necessary part. If a person did it and then faced towards Qibla, the act is right and acceptable but not preferable.
  • The same way if a person said Takbeer-e-Tahrima and he had unknowingly a dirt on his body or cloth then he threw it away and started Salah it is also right and acceptable.

Conditions for Takbeer-e-Tahrima:

  • Takbeer must be along with the intention prior to it, whether the intention is done orally or in heart (Haqiqatan or Hukman).
  • If a person does intention in with orally just prior to Takbeer, it is right.
  • If a person did intention of offering Salah when he was making ablution and after intention he did not do other works like eating, drinking, playing etc. which shows that his intention is changed, then he came and started Salah, the intention is right and correct.
  • A person must say Takbeer in standing posture if he is able.
  • A person must say it in such a loud voice that at least, he himself can hear it.
  • If he is followers he must do intention of Salah along with intention of following Imam.
  • Takbeer-e-Tahrima must be in a complete sentence like “Allaho Akbar”.
  • Don’t mix Takbeer with other wordings used in conversation with the people. It means that Takbeer must contain such wordings which praise only to Allah Almighty.[6]

Qiyam

Literary: It means to stand straight.

In Shariat: It means that to stand straight facing towards Qibla for worship.

Qiyam is an important part of the Salah and we start our prayer in standing posture if we are able because unable person can offer it in his convenient posture.

As Allah Almighty says about standing for prayers in the Holy Quran.

The Holy Quran:

حٰفِظُوا عَلَى الصَّلَوٰتِ وَالصَّلٰوةِ الْوُسْطٰى وَقُومُوا لِلَّهِ قٰنِتِينَ۞

Meaning:

“Maintain with care the [obligatory] prayers and [in particular] the middle prayer and stand before Allah, devoutly obedient.”[7]

As in the Hadith:

عَنْ عِمْرَانَ بْنِ حُصَيْنٍ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ كَانَتْ بِي بَوَاسِيرُ فَسَأَلْتُ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَنِ الصَّلاَةِ، فَقَالَ:‏ “‏صَلِّ قَائِمًا، فَإِنْ لَمْ تَسْتَطِعْ فَقَاعِدًا، فَإِنْ لَمْ تَسْتَطِعْ فَعَلَى جَنْبٍ‏”‏‏.

Meaning:

Narrated `Imran bin Husain:

I had piles, so I asked the Prophet (PBUH) about the prayer. He said, “Pray while standing and if you can’t, pray while sitting and if you cannot do even that, then pray laying on your side.”[8]

As we know that the Qiyam is also an important part of the Salah and we are ordered not to miss it without any valid reason. Qiyam is an important part (Rukn) of the Salah in Farz Salah and it is Wajib for a person who can stand.

Method to do Qiyam:

If a person wants to do Qiyam he must stands in such a posture that if he hangs or stretch his hands, they can’t reach to his knees and his vertebra would be straight while doing Qiyam.

Sunnah in Qiyam:

If a person is doing Qiyam in congregational prayer he must take care of the line (Saff) too.

It is Sunnah to make the Saff straight and it can be done while standing in the Qiyam.

As in Hadith:

عَنْ أَنَسٍ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ “‏ سَوُّوا صُفُوفَكُمْ فَإِنَّ تَسْوِيَةَ الصُّفُوفِ مِنْ إِقَامَةِ الصَّلاَةِ ‏”‏‏.‏

Meaning:

Narrated Anas bin Malik:

“The Prophet (PBUH) said, “Straighten your rows as the straightening of rows is essential for a perfect and correct prayer.”

(Muhammad Bin Ismail, Al-Bukhari: (1422 H). Sahih Al-Bukhari (Vol. 1). Daro Tauq Al-Najat: Page 145)

Makruh in Qiyam:

To stand leaning against something, is Makruh because it is not a complete Qiyam.

Standing on one leg is also considered Makruh because it is also not a complete Qiyam, but if a person has any problem or he is unable then he can do so, he would not be sinful and he would be granted full reward Sawab).

Method of holding hands in Qiyam:

After saying Takbeer-e-Tahrima every one has to stand crossing both the hands in Qiyam and start recitation, here is some more details about how to hold hands and where to put them in Qiyam.

  • In standing posture a men must put his right hand on the top of the left one under the belly button.
  • Woman must put her both hands on the chest without holding the wrist, she just need to put right hand on the left one.

In standing posture a Man must put his palm of right hand on the upper surface of left hand holding the wrist with little finger and thumb and keep the rest three fingers straight on the wrist and put the both hands on or under his belly button.

A woman must put her palm of right hand on the left one without holding the wrist with forefinger and thumb and put both the hands on her chest. She can put hands on her belly button as man does.[9]

Ruling of Qiyam (Standing)

  • Qiyam is Farz and Rukn of the Salah. There is no way to skip it unless a person is unable to do it.
  • If a person is unable to stand in the Salah then he can offer it either in sitting posture if he can or in laying on his right flank or in any other convenient posture.
  • It is repulsive (Makruh) to stand on one leg in the Salah.
  • If a person is offering Nafil Salah, he can skip the Qiyam and do it in sitting position also, though he is able to stand.
  • Salah in sitting position has half of the rewards (Sawab) for able person and if a person is unable then he may get full rewards (Sawab).
  • If a person had started Salah in standing position (and after one Rikat or after some action he sat) then he can end it in sitting position.[10]

Qirat (Recitation)

Literary: Qirat means to read or to recite, if a person reads a poem or something else it may also called Qirat.

Is Shariat: Qirat means the recitation of the Holy Quran and its Aayah whether it is inside the Salah or out of the Salah as a person normally recites the Holy Quran at night or in early morning after Fajr Salah.

In Salah: Qirat means the recitation of the Surah Fatiha and matching a surah or some ayah along with surah Fatiha.

There are some etiquettes for recitation of Holy Quran whether it is inside the Salah or outside of the Salah in your normal life.

  • First we must read Tawwuz.
  • Second we must read Tasmia.
  • Then we should start recitation of the Holy Quran.
  • The Qirat must be with full pronunciation (Talaffuz).
  • Recitation must not be very fast but we must recite with Tarteel (clear and moderate speed).
  • If it is Jahri Salah then recitation must be in such voice that followers can hear.
  • We must recite minimum in such voice that even we ourselves can hear.
  • We must try to recite in a beautiful voice.

How to do:

When we stand in Qiyam, we must start Qirat after Tawwuz and Tasmia and it is Mustahab but recitation of surah Fatiha is obligatory (Wajib) and reciting some more Aayah or a surah along with Fatiha is also a necessary part, some scholars say it is also obligatory (Wajib) while some says it is Sunnah.

Recitation in the Qirat:

  • First read Tawwuz and Tasmia.
  • Then recite Surah Fatiha as it is Wajib.
  • Then recite another surah or some Aayah with complete sense.

Sunnah Surah in the Salah:

  • It is narrated that Imam should recite Tiwal-e-Mufassal in Fajr and Zohar Salah.
  • And Awsat-e-Mufassal in Asar and Isha Salah.
  • And Qisar-e-Mufassal in Magrib Salah.

Details of Mufassalat:

  • Tiwal-e-Mufassal: it starts from surah Al-Hujurat to surah Al-Buruj.
  • Awsat-e-Mufassal: it starts after surah Al-Hujurat to surah Al-Bayyinah.
  • Qisar-e-Mufassal: it starts after surah Al-Bayyinah to surah Al-Naas.
  • It is Sunnah for Imam to recite in first Rikat of Fajr Salah longer than second Rikat so that more people can catch up the Salah.[11]

How to recite in the Qiraat?

Recitation is also an important part of Salah and it can be done in loud voice and in low voice as well.:

Recitation of surah Fatiha and other surah is Wajib in Salah and further details are as follow:

Recitation behind Imam:

  • If a person is offering Salah behind the Imam in his leadership then he doesn’t need to recite whether he knows to recite or not.
  • Imam and will recite loudly in Fajr Salah and in first two Rikat of Magrib and Isha Salah and will recite slowly in last two Rikat.
  • Followers are not allowed to recite behind the Imam neither in Jahri Salah nor in Sirri Salah..

Recitation Alone:

  • If a person is offering Salah, alone he may recite either loudly or slowly, as he wants.
  • If someone forgot recitation of surah after surah Fatiha in first two Rikat of Isha Salah, then he will have to recite it in last two Rikat with surah Fatiha loudly.
  • If someone forgot recitation of surah Fatiha in first two Rikat of Isha Salah, then he will not to recite it in last two Rikat.
  • If a person does not know to recite he must learn it if it is possible, otherwise he can do any other remembrance of Allah (Zikrullah) like reading any other Duwa.[12]

Matching Surah:

  • Imam must recite at least one small surah or three small Ayat after surah Fatiha.
  • In Fajr, we have a long time that is why it is narrated that Prophet (PBUH) use to recite in Fajr Salah 40 Aayah in two Rikat and in some other narration it is 50 Aayah and 50-60 Aayah and 60-100 Aayah as well, except surah Fatiha and it varies according to the situations.
  • It is Sunnah for Imam to recite in first Rikat of Fajr Salah longer than second Rikat so that more people can catch up the Salah.
  • First two Rikat of Zohar is equal it means no need to recite longer in first Rikat as in Fajr.[13]

Recitation of the Surah Fatiha

  • Recitation of surah Fatiha is obligatory (Wajib) in the first two Rak’ah of Farz Salah, in all Rak’ah of Sunnat, Nafil, both Eid Salah and Witr Salah.
  • But recitation of surah Fatiha is sunnat in last two Rak’ah of Farz Salah.
  • If a person is offering four Rak’ah Farz Salah alone then he will have to recite surah faith in all four Rak’ah as in first two Rak’ah it is obligatory (Wajib) and in last two Rak’ah it is sunnat.
  • If he is offering in congregation then Imam will recite and the followers must keep quiet and listen the Holy Quran carefully.[14]

Matching other Surah

  • Recitation of Surah Fatiha and matching surah is necessary in the first two Rak’ah of the Surah.
  • In last two Rak’ah of Farz Salah we have to recite only surah Fatiha and do not need to match any other surah.
  • But if a person is offering Sunnah Salah he must recite matching surah along with Fatiha in all the Rak’ah.

Ruku (Bowing)

Literary: Ruku means to bow down or to kneeling.

In Salah: Ruku is the position in Salah in which the person prostrates himself in a standing position with his body bent forward at the waist and his hands on his knees.

Ruku: It is an important part of the Salah and is a Rukn of it and as Allah Almighty says in the Holy Quran to do Ruku.

Holy Quran:

Allah Almighty says:

يٰٓأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا ارْكَعُوا وَاسْجُدُوا وَاعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمْ وَافْعَلُوا الْخَيْرَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

Meaning:

“O you who have believed, bow and prostrate and worship your Lord and do well – that you may succeed.”[15]

Hadith:

عَنْ أَبِي مَسْعُودٍ الْبَدْرِيِّ، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم: ‏ “‏ لاَ تُجْزِئُ صَلاَةُ الرَّجُلِ حَتَّى يُقِيمَ ظَهْرَهُ فِي الرُّكُوعِ وَالسُّجُودِ. ‏”

Meaning:

Narrated Abu Mas’ud al-Badri:

“The Prophet (PBUH) said, A man’s prayer does not avail him unless he keeps his back steady when bowing and prostrating.” [16]

  • The minimum length of Ruku is that, a person must bow down to such an extent that he can touch his both knees with both palms.
  • The full or maximum length is that, a person must enlarge his back in front direction and keep his head at the level his back and sacrum and hold both the knees with both the palms and let the fingers opened and spread (not keep them cling tightly together) and keep his arms away from his flanks.

[1] (Ali Bin Muhammad Al-Jurjani: (1983): Kitab Al-Tarifat: Beirut: Dar Al-Kutub Al-Ilmia: Vol.: 1: Page 112)

[2] (Al-Hajjah, Najah, Al-Halbi: Fiqah Al-Ibadat Ala Al-Mazhab: Maktaba Al-Shamilah: Vol.: 1: Page 77)

[3] (Sahih Muslim: 397: Book: 4, Hadith: 47)

[4] (Hasan Bin Ammar,Al-Sharnabulali: (2005): Nur Al-Idhah W Najat Al-Arwah: Al-Maktaba Al-Asria: (Vol. 1): page: 52)

[5] (Al-Hajjah, Najah, Al-Halbi: Fiqah Al-Ibadat Ala Al-Mazhab Al-Hanafi: Maktaba Al-Shamilah: Vol.: 1: Page: 77)

[6] (Al-Hajjah, Najah, Al-Halbi: Fiqah Al-Ibadat Ala Al-Mazhab Al-Hanafi: Maktaba Al-Shamilah: Vol.: 1: Page 77)

[7] (Al-Baqara 2: Aayah: 238)

[8] (Abu Dawod, Sulaiman Bin Ashath Al-Sajistani: (2009). Sunan Abu Dawod. Dar Al-Risala Al-Ilmia: Vol.: 2: Page 208)

[9] (Hasan Bin Ammar,Al-Sharnabulali, Al-Hanafi: (2005): Nur Al-Idhah W Najat Al-Arwah: (Vol. 1): Al-Maktaba Al-Asria: Page 56-58)

[10] (Al-Hajjah, Najah, Al-Halbi: Fiqah Al-Ibadat Ala Al-Mazhab Al-Hanafi: Maktaba Al-Shamilah: Vol.: 1: Page 79)

[11] (Abu Abdur Rahman Ahmad Bin Al-Shuaib Al-Khurasani Al-Nasai: (1989): Sunan-e-Nasai: Halab: Islamic publication office: Vol.: 2: Page 167)

[12] (Alaud Deen, Abu Bakr Bin Masud, Al-Kasani, (1982): Badai Al-Sanai. Beirut: Dar Al-Kutub Al-Arabi: Vol.: 1: Page 110) & (Hasan Bin Ammar,Al-Sharnabulali, (2005): Nur Al-Idhah W Najat Al-Arwah: (Vol. 1): Al-Maktaba Al-Asria: Page 55)

[13] (Abul Hasan, Ali Bin Abu Bakar,: (1417): Al-Hidayah: (Vol.: 1): Idarah Al-Quran Wa Al-Uloom Al-Islamia: page 55)

[14] (Alaud Deen, Abu Bakr Bin Masud, Al-Kasani, Al-Hanafi: (1982): Badai Al-Sanai. Beirut: Dar Al-Kutub Al-Arabi: Vol.: 1: Page 160)

[15] (22: Surah: Al-Hajj: Aayah: 77)

[16] (Abu Dawod, Sulaiman Bin Ashath Al-Sajistani: (2009). Sunan Abu Dawod. Dar Al-Risala Al-Ilmia: Vol.: 1: Page 226: H. 855)

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