Conditions of the Salah

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Conditions of the Salah

As mentioned in the beginning of the book that Salah is an obligatory act upon Muslims in every condition. Skipping the Salah is not permissible in any situation. It is obligatory to offer them at their prescribed times. If a person is sick, he will offer the Salah with his sickness. If a person is unable to stand up, he will do them in sitting position. If a person is unable to sit, he will offer them by laying. If a person is unable in such condition that he lost his sense, then other person will do it from his behalf.

What are the criteria for the Salah being Farz (obligatory) on Muslims? What are the conditions for the Salah being Farz upon Muslims?

Salah becomes obligatory with three conditions and criteria:

  • Islam:
  • The Salah is obligatory for Muslims only. If a person does not believe in Islam and has not accepted it, the Salah will not be obligatory for him. If a non-believer offers the Salah, it will not be considered as Salah. Islam is condition for the Salah.
  • To be adult (Bulugh):
  • A Muslim should be adult for the Salah being obligatory on him. Therefor, the Salah is not obligatory on children. If children do the Salah, they will get rewards. If they skip them, they will not be sinful.
  • Sense (Aql): an adult Muslim must have sense too. It means a person must be sensible so that he can sense the importance of Salah and he is able to perform it. Therefore. if a person is mad or mental not well, the Salah will not be obligatory on him.

The above-mentioned are three conditions for obligation of the Salah; if a person fulfills all these, the Salah will be obligatory on him at the time of the Salah.[1]

There are two rulings for children in the Salah:

  • If the child becomes 7 years old, it is parents’ duty to order him for offering the Salah. It is better to urge children to offer Salah when they are sensible, even before 7 years.
  • When child becomes 10 years old, they can even punish him if he doesn’t offer Salah. The punishment should not with stick and not on face and in a brutal way).

As in the Hadith:

Sabrah bin Mabad Al-Juhani (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that:

“Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, “Teach a boy Salah (the prayer) when he attains the age of seven years, and punish him (if he does not offer it) at ten.”[2]

Bulugh (Adult) (البلوغ)

Bulugh is Arabic word which means adulthood and sexual maturity. Islam considers the adulthood in many places. One of them is the Salah. The Salah becomes obligatory after a person reaches to the age of adult. The Salah is not Farz on children.

According to Shariah:

In male:

  • The sign of being adult in male is puberty, ejaculation and the ability to make a woman pregnant, if he has sexual intercourse.

Age limits:

  • Minimum age of being adult is 12 years and Maximum age is 18 years. Another saying of Imam Abu Hanifa and others is 15 year for girls and boys both.

In female:

  • The sign of being adult in female is puberty, menstruation and pregnancy.

Age limits: Minimum age of being adult for girl is 9 years and maximum age is 17 years but another saying of Imam Abu Hanifa and others, is 15 year for girls and boys both.

  • Adulthood depends on the signs of being adult. Therefore, after minimum age limits when the sign of being adult is seen the person will become Balig (adult).
  • In case, no sign is seen then after maximum age limit the person will be considered Balig (adult).[3]

[1] (Hasan Bin Ammar,Al-Sharnabulali, Al-Hanafi: (2005): Nur Al-Idhah W Najat Al-Arwah: (Vol. 1): Al-Maktaba Al-Asria: Page 44)

[2] (Abu Dawod, Sulaiman Bin Ashath Al-Sajistani: (2009). Sunan Abu Dawod. Dar Al-Risala Al-Ilmia: Vol.: 1: Page 133: H. 494)

[3] (Abul Hasan, Ali Bin Abu Bakar: (1417): Al-Hidayah: (Vol.: 3): Idarah Al-Quran Wa Al-Uloom Al-Islamia: Page 284)

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